Saturday, April 30, 2016

Citing and Referencing: Identifying Academic Sources and Integrating the Ideas of Published Authors

The source of information used in university assignments is generally from an authority. Authority is an author or a well known writer who has his work published and patent. His work can be published in any book, magazine, journal, web page, newspaper article and can take any form. From such a work one can easily find various theoretical ideas, critical evaluations, views and scholarly opinions easily. The source of information which a reader used can be grouped into two main categories:
Primary source: This data relates to publicly available data such as historical documents, raw data data from experiments or demographic records.
Secondary Source : This data draws information from primary data and is produced for public use in the form of a journal article, magazine article or any other printed stuff.

These academic sources of information differ completely from one’s own view or opinion. The conclusion or outcomes of discussion with a friend or a relative also differs a lot from academic source of information.Even magazine or newspaper article opinion does not come into play when one talk about academic source of information.Students draw information from these academic sources as they turn out to be great assignment help tools. One of the major factors of using academic source of information is that they are supported by a very strong literature which forms the basis of assignment help. University management  assignments help to dig this literature and find out points of similarity and points of difference. Assignment help experts always adhere to the referencing guidelines before submitting a write up.
Hence, it is important to quote these authors in the assignment whenever seeking help from such tools. This technique of referring to authors in one’s writing is called citing, documenting, or in-text referencing.
How to cite or referencing?
There are generally different ways to cite or refer the thoughts taken from a particular literature. One of the  ways is APA (American Psychological Association) referencing system. Other citing techniques used are Harvard, MLA, Chicago. APA follows the author-date method to cite a author. To start with the author’s name is written first, followed by the year in which it was published. The author, date can be used in the body of the sentence or is used in brackets at the end of the sentence. By embedding the author’s name within the sentence, body it increases it’s clarity in the mind of the reader. The full reference detail can be found at the end.

However , there are certain tips on how to cite an author :  Read How to cite)
Authors can be cited within the body of the sentence or at the end in brackets. It is recommended to use both the methods.
To remove dependency on similar verbs when citing like “Mc Donalds (1999) states” and “Peterson (2000) states” there are other verbs which can be used like agrees, assert, believe,claims, etc.
If there are two or more authors with the same surname always include their first name to distinguish their publications.
If two or more works are published by the author in the same year, then add a and b respectively in the year of publication like 1992a and 1992b.
For the work with no date, add n.d after the name
Hence, in this way there are various other techniques used while citing or referencing. One must know the basic rules when citing. It is important to put the ideas in own words as this shows that the concept and an idea is integrated well by the learner. Always remember to give credit to the author whose work one is referring to.

Thursday, April 28, 2016

The Writing Process: Interpreting the Topic

What is the essay all about? What are you going to talk about in your essay? Is it a question which you have to answer or a statement that you have to justify? Do you need to compare two or more things/point of views or suggest a solution to a problem?
Well, all these questions are answered by the interpretation of the essay topic. This is the first and most important step of essay writing. An essay writer needs to first understand what he/she is expected to do in the essay, before he/she can proceed with the other steps. If you go wrong here, your entire essay will be done wrong, since the reader will be expecting something else, which you did not interpret correctly. Thus, interpretation of the topic is a very crucial step towards essay writing.

In order to interpret the topic correctly, one needs to pay heed to three aspects of a given topic. These three aspects are:
1. Command – what you are supposed to do.
2. Topic – The general field of discussion
3. Focus – What part of the general field of discussion that you need to focus on.
Take the following example:
“Schooling should be made compulsory for all till the age of 18. Discuss”
Now, in this case, the topic is – “schooling for all till the age of 18”.
The focus will be – “should be made compulsory”, and the command is – “discuss”.
Thus, you have to discuss, investigate, present both sides of the argument as to whether schooling should be made compulsory for all till the age of 18 or not, and arrive at a conclusion. Thus, the students can get a clear understanding that they need to come to a decision whether they support the question or not, and provide arguments accordingly by properly understanding the command.

A wiser way of interpreting a topic would be to consider it as a question. “Should schooling be made compulsory for all till the age of 18?”. This way, you have spared yourself the complication of going wrong with your topic, because all you need to do now is answer the given question. This will force you to see both sides of the argument and then arrive at a conclusion.
Essays are some of the most complex assignments that custom essay writers do. In most cases, essay topics are more like debates, asking the essay writer to act like a lawyer, but present both cases – for and against the topic, and then act as a judge too – who would give a judgement as well. Thus, when attempting an essay, professional essay writers always follow suit where they try to persuade the reader to agree to their point of view but also present the opposing points, along with constantly showing the negatives of the points opposing their point of view, in order to prove why they chose to pick this side of the story.By presenting alternative arguments in your essay, you are not just convincing your reader that you have read well but also showing the reader the weaknesses of the alternative arguments, which will make your case stronger and better in front of your readers.

Interpreting the topic looks like a small step. It sounds very easy and nothing that might need much attention. But the fact remains that the topic is the most important aspect that needs utmost care and attention. The custom essay writer can not afford to go wrong here, as all the following steps are based on this one. Just simple understanding and interpretation of the topic itself can give you many ideas about how to go about your essay, what view points to consider and how to form your debate. Thus, do it right in the beginning, to stay on the right path till the end.

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Assignment Writing Tips: Procrastination

Procrastination can be defined as delaying some task that one needs to complete within a specified deadline. Procrastination is very common behavioral traits observed in university students while completing their assignments. If you also have the habit of procrastination, then you should take assignment help sydney Well in advance to be able to complete your assignment. Now, there is a widely held notion that procrastination occurs because the student is lazy and not focused. As you also might be knowing that reality is not that simple and procrastination can result from the following causes as well:
Having set a very high standard of expectation for yourself.
Not completely clear about how to manage an assignment.
Imagining challenges that you might be facing while writing.
Feeling lack of skills to complete the assignment properly.
Tied up with your part time job and not able to take out enough time for writing.

Don’t feel completely devastated by your habit of procrastination, as with the help of proper strategies you can almost get over it. This article will help you out with strategies to avoid procrastination. However, if you still feel not able to manage the habit, it is recommended that you take assistance with assignment in Sydney.

Plan your time
Generally, in graduate or even undergraduate level a student should spend 2 hours outside class, per hour of class time. That means that if you are taking a 12 credit course, then every week you should attempt to spend at least 24 hours outside class for reading, writing assignment. On an average, 10 to 15 hours outside class-time should be reserved for completing a 1000 to 2000 word assignment. The most efficient way to use this time is to spread it across a few weeks, depending on the deadline of various assignments. As now almost everyone has access to smart phone, you can use free planning application like Google Calendar, with a reminder feature. Make good use of this type of application to spread out the stipulated time for the assignment over a week or multiple weeks.
Time management has four main dimensions: 
Organization: recognizing the basic routines and systems that work best for you can be extremely useful and can help you remove a lot of worry from your life. Some examples are: where and how to store notes, how much sleep you require, what sort of sleep schedule fits you best, when to work and when to take breaks, etc. Planning out these routines for yourself will maximize your productivity and leave your mind fresh and energetic when it should be. Don’t think that ‘one size fits-all method’should be followed for routines, instead figure out what works best for you. As properly planned routine can easily transform you into a multi-tasker.

Prioritization: You should not only prioritize between your personal, social and academic life, but also create detailed priority plans for various courses and assignments depending on deadlines,the importance of those assignments, and credit of the courses of those assignments. 
Pareto principle:This principle advocates that mostly one can get 80% of the results or end product, with a well-placed 20% of the effort or input. Make smart use of this idea while writing assignments.
Focus: Once all the above components are in place, then you need to get on with it to carry out your plans in the best possible manner.
If you find these strategies are just too much for you to handle, then take help of an essay writing service.. Just keep reminding yourself that even great writers need to start writing before they could create an immaculately written piece. So the main thing is that irrespective of your plans, you can’t complete any assignment unless and until you start writing it.

Monday, April 25, 2016

Basics on Business Report Writing

Business reports are those types of assignments where you are expected to critically analyze a situation, either real life or an imaginary one, with the help of various business theories to come up with novel suggestions for improvement. Assignment help Melbourne help you write business reports for your assignment.

Before writing the business report, it is important to be clear about its purpose. A vital step in understanding the purpose is to identify the targeted audience of your report. You should construct your report as if you were writing it for any real audience (like the CEO of a company or other stakeholder of a business) and not to your professors. Otherwise,the purpose of a business report can be:
Critically examine available solutions to a problem, issue, or a situation.
Work out a practical problem through business and management theories
Showcase your analytical abilities to evaluate various solutions of a problem to choose the best one
Provide recommendations for further action
Show concise communication abilities.
Broadly on the basis of the purpose, following types of business report can be listed:
Justification/ recommendation report:Generally, this type of report captures an idea. This isused to make suggestions to the management.
Investigative report: These are used to determine the risk involved within a particular decision and to anticipate future consequences.

Compliance report: This type of report is used by industries to present its compliance of rule and regulations, to the governing body.
Feasibility report: These reports are based on evaluating the viability of an idea or a new project.
Research studies report: This Encapsulates the finding of a study directed to solve a very specific problem or issue in a company.
Periodic report: These reports are written at a fixed intervals, such as weekly, monthly, yearly, etc. to examine profit & loss, efficiency or any other performance metric.
Situational report: This is written on some specific situations such as a seminar or an emergency situation due to a natural disaster.  
Yardstick report: These reports evaluate several potential solutions for a particular issue or situationto recommend a particular course of action.
Except the above mentioned types of business report on the basis of purpose, the following two broad types of report can be categorized on the basis of the organization of the sections in the report.
Inductive Business reports: These are built on the inductive logic. Following the logic, these reports start with a very broad issue in the introduction or the body of the report; and then narrows down to a very specific one in the conclusion or the recommendation. This type of report is ideal for audiences who have adequate time to scan the complete report, or differently in cases where the recommendations are fairly problematic.
Deductive business report: Contrary to the inductive logic, this type of report is based on deductive reasoning. This report proceeds from the specific to the general issues and therefore, ideal for audiences who don’t have the time to study the report entirely and might study the conclusion and recommendation.

For academic assistance with essay writer  to write these different types of reports you can look for professional providers.
Like other types of report, a business report is likewise comprised of:
Discussions or Body
Unlike other academic documents, like a journal article or an essay, a business report has a separate section called recommendations after the conclusions. You need to write conclusions and recommendations sections carefully, as often most of your audience might only read these two sections of your report.

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Putting Authors’ Ideas into Your Own Words: Summarizing and Paraphrasing

Summarizing and paraphrasing are two facets of the same thing, and that is to express what an author is trying to say in your own words without destroying the essence of his thoughts. While a paraphrase can be attributed to an original source without directly quoting this source and is typically shorter than the original text, summarizing has more to do with placing the key ideas in ones’ own words. Both summarizing and paraphrasing are skills that you need to master when writing an assignment. You will find that a quality assignment provider will be able to summarize and paraphrase relevant materials without distorting what the original text is saying.

                                                                                                  Tricks to summarize and paraphrase easily:
We all know how important it is to be able to convey an author’s views in your own language. This is an indication of how well you have understood his writings. Although expressing his opinions and ideas may appear to be a challenge at first, with practice, you will find it becoming simpler and simpler. Using thesaurus and dictionaries may be an excellent way to write an accurate summary of what you read. When you have a command over vocabulary, it is not at all difficult to play with words to give your writing a unique look and feel although your ideas may have been heavily borrowed from an external source.
In summarizing, we try to extract the key points in a text and then create a summary which covers all these points in a different language. There must be a marked distinction between your write-up and the original text. You can use different sentence structures or simplify the ideas given to give it a new look.  You may even use the keywords mentioned in the original text because at times it may not be wise to simplify these any further for fear of altering the meaning. At the same time, you can try to arrange these in a different way and combine these with other words for a more interesting read.
In a summary, you can even skip details that you may find unnecessary and focus on the ones which you believe to be integral to the text. You can shorten the main ideas and compile multiple ideas in a single sentence instead of devoting individual sentences to each. Presentation of ideas can also be manipulated as long as you do not end up distorting the meaning. So, while an original writing may deal with the main idea first followed by a broader context of issues, you can deal with the broader issues first and then narrow your scope down to the main idea when writing a summary. So, you are free to choose keywords that you feel are relevant and then pair these with other keywords to produce a unique write-up. An marketing assignment service provider is also at liberty to choose certain ideas and omit others according to his will.
In paraphrasing too, you can apply many of these afore-mentioned techniques. However, before you paraphrase, it is imperative that you have your own point of view about the text and you use this as a guideline. In paraphrasing, you are expected to rewrite the information present in the original text by using different words. The idea is not to make a brief outline of the original text; it is to rewrite the text using separate vocabulary. You do not quote information when you paraphrase; you understand the real essence of the text and then rewrite it. This means that you should continue to read the text thoroughly till you can grasp the real meaning. You must also verify that your version matches with what the original text is trying to convey.
To be able to write an assignment, it is important to know the art of summarizing and paraphrasing. Summarizing, quoting and paraphrasing are different techniques by which you can incorporate the works and ideas of others when writing your own assignments. These methods, together with a referencing system can help you write absolutely original assignments and avoid plagiarism. While in summarizing, you use only the main ideas in the original text and explain these in your own language, in paraphrasing, you simply rewrite the original text in your own words without shortening it. Summary can therefore present a wide overview while paraphrasing focuses on changing the word and sentence structure, without missing any details.

Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Hand hygiene techniques for nurses in an operation room

The utilization of hand hygiene techniques by nursing professionals is highly necessary for reducing the transmission of resident and transient microorganisms during the course of operative intervention across the surgical setting. The lack of working knowledge of hand hygiene interventions among registered nurses places them at high risk of developing debilitating infections in the operating room. These infections exhibit the scope of their transmission to healthy individuals residing in the nearby locations and therefore, an epidemic outbreak is highly suspected with the potential of causing serious morbidities and mortalities across the community environment. Therefore, nurses require religiously following hand hygiene principles in operating rooms to safeguard the patterns of health and wellness within their societies.
The preliminary objective of hands-antisepsis technique attributes to the removal of dust and debris from the hands while utilizing an antimicrobial agent for reducing the progression of infectious organisms. The aim of hands-sterilization focuses on the accomplishment of the following challenges:
1. Cessation of unnoticed transmission of bacteria from the hands of nurses to the patient’s surgical wound.
2. Reducing the growth of microorganisms under the surgical gloves to nullify the chances of bacterial contamination following their ineffective disposal.
3. Reduction in bacterial exposure to the nurse professionals for challenging the transmission of virulent infections and contagious conditions.
4. Protection of skin flora from the development of Corynebacteria and Staphylococcal infections.
5. Reducing the scope of progression of postoperative endocarditis between patients, nurse professionals and other members of healthcare team.
Nurses require practicing the following hand hygiene techniques while taking care of patients across the operative units:
1. Utilization of medicated ingredients including chlorhexidine gluconate and triclosan products for ceasing the recurrent growth of bacterial following the initial exposure to the disinfecting agents.
2. Scrubbing the hands with antiseptic agents for tenure of 5 – 10 minutes following the surgical intervention.
3. Utilization of sterile towels for cleaning the hands after the administration of antiseptic solution.
4. Utilization of alcohol based hand-rubs recommended by World Health Organization for reducing the scope of bacterial invasion under the gloves.
5. The position of hands after application of alcohol based scrub should be such that hands require placement over the level of elbows to reduce the bacterial invasion on hands.

Protocols thoroughly describe the standard operative hand cleansing protocols for nurses in the context of reducing the predisposition of patients as well as health care teams in experiencing patterns of infection following the surgical intervention.
Challenges in Practicing Hand Hygiene Procedures
Compliance of nursing professionals to effective hand hygiene techniques across surgical setting highly required for reducing the burden of infectious diseases across the community environment.  However, nurse professionals face many challenges in practicing hand hygiene procedures that resultantly increase their risk of developing contagious conditions following the surgical assistance. The multiple engagements of nurses across emergency care units, exposure to the infectious environment in general wards, overcrowding of patients, increased number of surgical care interventions, frequent requirement of gloves and gowns, and constant exposure with infectious equipments reduce their effective compliance of hand hygiene interventions across the healthcare settings. Additionally, hand-irritation following the utilization of disinfectants, lack of hand hygiene equipments in surgical units and minimum awareness regarding the significance of hand hygiene interventions elevates the risk of infection transmission across the surgical care settings in medical facilities.  

Important Tips for Practicing Hand Hygiene Protocols
1. Administration of water and soap necessarily required by the nurse professionals for removing any visible dust or infectious materials from the hands following the surgical intervention.
2. Utilization of hand-rub and soap after contacting the secretions and body fluids of the patient after the administration of surgical technique.
3. Washing hands with hand-rub as well as soap after contacting with the medical equipment during the surgical interventions.
4. Interlacing of fingers and palms while rotationally rubbing the hands after applying the disinfectant.
5. Remove of personal articles including, bracelet, watch, ring and tag while cleansing the hands following the surgical interventions.
6. The nurses should peel back the sterile gloves while wearing them and roll them for their disposal after extending the surgical assistance. The nurses also need to track any leakage or rupture in gloves and dispose them instantly in such situation for avoiding the infectious exposure. as suggested by essay writing experts who are well acquainted with this subject.
For obtaining more information on hand hygiene protocols. 
Implementation of hand hygiene procedures by nursing professionals highly warranted across the medical facilities during invasive interventions in the context of reducing the predisposition of the patient population as well as healthcare teams in terms of facilitating the transmission of debilitating conditions attributing to hepatitis and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Nurse professionals require practicing caution while contacting the patients during surgical interventions and practice surgical preparation of hands with the effective utilization of glycerine, alcohol and other antiseptics for challenging the scope of infectious transmission across the healthcare units. Nurse professionals require a thorough understanding of the clinical manifestations and fatal prognostic outcomes of postoperative infection, and the significance of practicing hand hygiene interventions for reducing the onset of these debilitating conditions.  These topics  can also come as  essay writing for nursing students.

Sunday, April 10, 2016


Effective administration of justice has been an age-old criterion of judging the mark of any notable king, civilisation or government. With the passage of time, several methods were invented and put to test for dispute resolution with a view to serve the idea of justice. While some methods have stood long to the test of time; many have failed. International Commercial Arbitration is one such method that endured itself in the history of dispute resolution. The reason why the subject grew so much in its scope and its importance is the increasingly complex nature of cross-border commercial transaction.

The principles of dispute resolution be method of international arbitration have evolved from the times when the economy of a country remained relatively independent from the other countries. However, the twentieth century changed the economic world order over and again. Foreign investments became quintessential to provide thrust to the economies of underdeveloped or developing countries. This realisation came in with era of globalisation and resulted in an unprecedented rise of cross-border transactions to grease the wheels of foreign investment in their respective countries.  Therefore, it was important for the evolution of an effective method of dispute resolution and hence, the concept of International Commercial Arbitration was envisaged. With this quaint introduction to the concept, this commentary would now elaborate upon the features of the concept.
While there is no authoritative definition of the concept, Gary Born  has defined the concept in the following manner:
“International arbitration is a means by which international disputes can be definitively resolved, pursuant to the parties’ agreement, by independent, non-governmental decision makers, producing a legally binding and enforceable ruling.”
A very generic definition of International Commercial Arbitration can be said to be a mechanism of dispute resolution governed by an Agreement between parties having their place of business in different states.

At this instance, it is also appropriate to highlight the difference between International and National Arbitration. According to the CISG, the provisions of the convention are applicable to contract of sales of goods between parties whose places of business are in different countries that are parties to the CISG.  This is the most apt legal proposition that distinguishes the two concepts. It is important to understand the difference to appreciate the complexities, such as enforceability of arbitral awards, intervention of the domestic courts, which arise in International Arbitration as opposed to Domestic arbitration.

The primary source of law for an Arbitrator is the Agreement which governs the commercial relationship between the parties. A compulsory arbitration clause highlights the importance of methods alternate dispute resolution and the commitment of the parties towards resolving the issue in a timely manner.  If the arbitration was going to be US-based, then there are many sources of arbitration law as per the United States. It is important to mention here that the parties enjoy the complete independence while negotiating the Arbitration agreement. Now, the primary legislation governing the arbitration law differs from state to state while conforming largely to the Model law.
The scope of jurisdiction of a tribunal conducting arbitration emanates from the International Contract which gives rise to such dispute.  As per the Model Convention, the term-“Commercial” is given a wide interpretation to include all the connotations that can be reasonably attributed to a commercial relationship. The Model law also provides an indicative list of the examples of commercial transactions.
The reason why the Seat assumes importance is that it determines the scope of intervention by a domestic court. Now, it is a cornerstone principle of arbitration, that the proceedings before the arbitral tribunal should not be interfered by the domestic courts. Moreover, the governing law for the arbitral tribunal is dependent upon the seat of arbitration. The governing law provides for several procedural aspects of the proceedings before the tribunal as well as the powers of the tribunal while adjudicating upon the issues. Another major issue that emerges out of any discussion on the “seat” of arbitration is the arbitrability of the dispute. The dilemma around the arbitrability arises out the conflict between the substantive law and lex arbitri. An ancillary point regarding the seat could be that there are chiefly two methods of arbitration - ad-hoc and institutional arbitration.Arbitration and its concepts can be too much for a beginner just incase you need help there are always services like business law assignment help to come to your rescue.
While the Model law has brought a certain measure of uniformity and coherence in the manner principles of International Commercial Arbitration are interpreted, there is lot to be done. Just like assignment writing ,essay writing even understanding arbitration  takes quite some effort.

Friday, April 8, 2016

Very crucial points apart from Quotations, which you must take care in your assignments while referencing

The referencing the source is not only compulsory in academic writing, but also highly important. The students need to validate the content they are writing in their assignment through referencing and properly citing the sources used. Different referencing styles are in prevalence in the universities operating in different countries. For example, universities operating in the United States use APA referencing, while those operating in the UK use Harvard referencing. The referencing under different styles is almost similar except few changes relating to formatting and structuring the reference. This paper addresses the peculiarities of referencing, which the students should keep in mind while referencing the sources in their assignments.
Figure-1: Different Referencing Styles
Sources and Referencing 
There are various sources, which can be used by the students for the purpose of academic writing such as books, journals, news articles,essay writting and reliable websites (not Wikipedia and encyclopaedias). The unreliable sources cannot be used in the academic writing such as Wikipedia and encyclopaedia, thus the students should remember that these sources are not referenced in their assignment. Ideally, a list containing references, arranged in an alphabetical order, should be given at the end of the assignment on a separate page. The guidelines relating to the referencing of the different sources have been discussed in the sections given below:
The referencing of the books is done by mentioning the name of the authors, year of publication, title of the book, and name of the publisher. These details are structured sequentially starting with the name of the author followed by the year of publication. After the year of publication, title of the book mentioned, which is generally written in italics, and then at last name of the publisher is mentioned. For example, “Gibson, R. 2016. Ratio analysis: a comparative study of the organization’s profitability, 6th edition. Wiley and Sons Publication.” This is a simple example exhibiting referencing of a book written by one author, few other important aspects relating to referencing are as below:
If there are two authors, the name of the authors can be separated by putting “AND” between names of two authors. Further, in case of more than three authors, the name of authors can be separated by putting “comma (,)” and “AND” before the name of the last author.
Regarding the year of publication, it should be kept in mind that the year of actual publication is given and not the year of reprint. There may be the year of a reprint mentioned in the book in case the book was reprinted.
Figure-2: Referencing of a Book
The referencing of a journal article is similar to the book except that few more details are added such as the name of the journal, volume number, issue number, and page numbers. Consider an example of referencing a journal, “Oblan, A. and Robert, S. 2016. The determinant of bank’s profitability: Empirical data evidence. Journal of financial management, (4) (1): 145-210”. Here “(4) and (1)” are respectively the volume and issue number of the journal.
Online Source
The referencing of the online source is different from that of the books and journals. The crucial aspect of online source referencing is the web link and the date on which the source was assessed. Further, it should also be kept in mind that the online may be such that does not have any author. In such cases, the referencing should be done by mentioning the name of the source, for example, in case of the company’s annual report, “Annual Report of ABC Inc,” can be mentioned in place of the author’s name.              
Figure-3: Online Source Referencing
Few other Important Points
In case same citation is used at various places in the document, the writer can use the word “Ibid” in place of citation. This word refers to the citation done in the earlier Para.
In case of more than three authors, the writer can use the words “et al.,” after the name of the first author instead of using the names of all the authors. This applies in the cases of in text citation only, however, in preparing bibliography; the names of all the authors should be mentioned.
The list of references should be arranged in the alphabetical order and indent should be given to each reference in the list. as suggested by assignment help experts          
Referencing and citations of the sources can be difficult and confusing in academic writing. This paper addresses the crucial aspects that pertain to the referencing of the various sources such as book, journals, and online sources. The paper helps in learning the referencing in an easy way by exhibiting the example of each source. Further, the paper also explains other crucial aspects relating the structuring and formatting the references, which may be highly useful in the academic writers. Through this paper, it is endeavoured that all the academic writers get the complete understanding of the referencing and learn the preparation of bibliographies.  

Thursday, April 7, 2016

Learn indirect quotation referencing in your assignment

The referencing and citations of the sources used in writing an academic assignment are important aspects, which a writer needs to take into consideration. The source citation is referred as quoting the text taken from the sources such as books and journal articles. There are two types of source citations such as direct and indirect. In this paper the discussion will evolve around the indirect citation of the sources used by the writer in his own work. The indirect quotations are frequently used in the academic writing, but the same is not the case with direct quotations.

Figure-1: Types of Citations

What is Indirect Quotation
The indirect quotation is used when the writer uses the content of the source indirectly. This implies that when the content of the source is used by the writer by converting into own words by interpreting or articulating the content of the source. In the direct quotation, the writer takes the content from the source as it is, while in case of indirect quotation, the content of the source is converted into own words by the writer. For example, suppose writer found content in a book written by Robert Gibson and published in 2016, “Ratios elucidate the financial health of a business by providing insight into how the business is performing”.
The writer could use the above content by converting it into own words as, “According to Gibson (2016), the ratios are crucial for the investors as these help in assessing the financial performance and position of the company”. Alternatively, this indirect quotation can be presented as, “The ratios are crucial for the investors as these help in assessing the financial performance and position of the company (Gibson, 2016).
Figure-2: Rewording the Content

Important Features of Indirect Quotation
The discussion in the above section depicts that the most important aspect of indirect quotation is the use of own words. The content of the source has to be converted into own words beyond all reasonable doubts. Further, while citing the source two things are used such as the name of the author and the year of publication. The writer should bear in mind that the name of the author used in the citation is the last name only. In the example shown in the above section, it could be seen that in citing the source only “Gibson” has been used while the full name of the author is “Robert Gibson”.
In the first alternative of citation, the sentence starts with a phrase such as, “According to....” and then the last name of the author is given followed by a comma (,) and the year of publication. It should also be noted that the detail as regards the name of the author and the year of publication are given in a small bracket.
Other Important Points
It may happen that the source, which is being used by the writer, is written by more than one author. In such cases the writer should not forget to include the names of the other authors. The names of the authors are separated by comma (,) and before the last author’s name “AND” is put, for example, (Game, Knights, and Willmott, 1991). The author’s names are arranged in an alphabetical order and this format is followed consistently throughout the paper. For citation purposes, three authors are considered to be appropriate, but there may also be situations in which a source could be found written by more than three authors. or by an  assignment expert
In such situations, the names of all the authors are not given in the citation because it deteriorates the presentation. Further, since the citations count in the word limit of an assignment, so it is possible that the writer uses the sources written by many authors to cover the word limit only. Thus, it is appropriate for a writer to use “et al.,” after putting the name of the first author of the source, for example, (Game, et al., 1991).        
In this paper the issues pertaining to referencing and citations of the indirect quotes in the academic writing have been dealt with. It is very important to give citations of the work of others used by the writer to accredit the work of another person. The writer involved in the academic writing needs to be acquainted with the citations and use of the sources in his own work which is unlike essay writing. .For this purpose, this paper elaborates the guidelines to be followed in giving citations to the indirect quotes in the written piece of work of the writer. The paper contains examples of citations covering various situations such as one author, three authors, and more than three author cases. 

From Automobiles to Software Development - An Introduction to Kanban

“The first rule of any technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify the efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency.”
- Bill Gates
Efficiency Is a buzz word of today’s technology. The more we focus on this state better would be performance taking the business to greater heights.This is where Kanban, a lean approach to agile development has aided the users into better arena.
Fig 2 properties and effects of Kanban
“Why?” is the phrase used quite often whenever a new technology takes its first step into the real world. The answer to this “why??” is a set of value-added functions the system assures to provide. Transparency in their doings, removing the obstacle by scanning the holdups, enhancing team communication, empowering the team to handle the process and believing in team work are the functions accompanied with the topic of interest.

Fig 3 images of kanban card sourced from Seton

Working of the system in Industrial Division:
The developer Taiichi Ohno, industrial engineer at Toyota visualized the doings in the supermarket to the working of the productions sectors. The initiative was taken to setup self-stocking techniques in an industrial environment. A detailed survey of the customer demands is a key to bring the concept into play. A thought given to the survey report suggests the demand-forecast to be proposed for the working of the scheme. Once the demand number is finalized the count of cards to be used by each subdivision is calculated. This count remains a constant unless there is any variation in customer demand and helps preserve the upper limit of work-in-progress for that particular instant of time.
In the created demand-driven system the manual kanban card as portrayed in the fig 3 is made to travel through the supply chain.  The card signals the outcome of the former phase – depletion of products, part or inventory. This insufficiency testimony aids in restocking of the deficient. The kanban cards are physically attached before dispatching the part. This card is later collected and reused to keep a count on the cards of subdivision. This mechanism suggests next division in the process cycle to use the processed part when necessary. This is how the system is made useful in a manufacture and assembly section like automobile, inventory, transportation and essay to name a few.

Fig 4 image sourced from Crisp AB

Working of the system in software
A talk about the software or its products…differ every day, use of different functionalities leads to something new and dissimilar from the previous one.  Software development differs from any manufacturing unit in its creation. Production is an approach taken in software world which assures high chances of succeeding while development is an approach resulting in lower scale in the path of success. To bring the thought into play in the computer world, email notifications have replaced manual card-driven techniques. Indication of depletion of the component is followed by “kanban trigger” generated either manually or automatically by the system. The trigger message defines the predefined quantity with time interval to be posted to the supplier. An empty cart conveys the user to refill the cart.
“Coming together is the beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success”
- Henry Ford
One of the terms used in any project development is “Team work”. To proceed with the thought, the status of the project should be kept transparent from other players of the project. Many verbs attached to the status- in progress, tested, accepted, blocked etc. imparts better understanding of the outcome. Posting the status of the work as portrayed in the fig 4 helps in maintaining pace with each other.
“Divide each difficulty into as many parts as is feasible and necessary to resolve it”
- Rene Descartes
A project taken up is broken down into multiple tasks. The development uses karban in two levels. A project level depicts the user story and team level which represents the task to be undertaken. The pull string can be activated by enabling the downstream process to signal the upstream process to begin with it’s working.

Reaching the end of the study, technologies ascend with quality and performance has to be its measuring yardstick. To add values to the terms, gaining better control over the system acts as a key. The solution to wide spread process-control varying from manufacturing industrial sectors like automobiles to software development is keyed as “Kanban”. For anyone who is still finding it difficult to understand Kanban difficult there are always options like Information science assignment help, to make their life easier. The system aids the user in gaining better control over the process and providing the other players of the team a visual view of the process status. The system builds better team enhancing the communication among them and increasing the trust in one another.